RNA methylation is a reversible post-translational modification to RNA that epigenetically impacts numerous biological processes. It occurs in different RNAs including tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, tmRNA, snRNA, snoRNA, miRNA, and viral RNA. The most common internal modifications of mRNA include N6 adenylate methylation (m6A), N1 adenylate methylation (m1A), cytosine hydroxylation (m5C), etc. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is the most common and abundant methylation modification in RNA molecules present in eukaryotes and accounts for more than 80% of all RNA methylation. It may be referred to as the "fifth RNA base" and has broad roles in regulating embryonic development and cell fates. Once the enzyme involved in the modification of m6A is abnormal, it will cause a series of diseases, including tumor, neurological diseases, embryonic development retardation and so on. 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) is an epigenetic mark that also commonly occurs in various RNA molecules.
Recent data strongly suggest that m6A and 5-mC RNA methylation affects the regulation of various biological processes, but some in-depth mechanism research still has a lot of work to be completed by scientists around the world. As an important tool for RNA methylation analysis, PCR plays an important role in the study of various biological processes.
Fig. 1 Process of m5C methylation analysis. (Shen C, et al. 2019)
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