Circular RNA (circRNA) is a special kind of noncoding RNA (sometimes expressed in vivo), which is the latest research hotspot in RNA field. Different from the traditional linear RNA (including 5' and 3' ends), the circRNA molecule has a closed ring structure, which is not affected by RNA exonuclease, more stable expression and is not easy to degrade. In terms of function, recent studies have shown that circRNA molecules are rich in microRNA binding sites, which play the role of miRNA sponge in cells, thus relieving the inhibition of miRNA on its target genes and increasing the expression level of target genes. This mechanism is called competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) mechanism. CircRNA plays an important regulatory role in diseases through the interaction of miRNAs associated with diseases. Study of circRNA can be achieved by real time PCR. (Fig. 1)
Fig. 1 Schematic representation of the design of divergent primers using the circRNA junction as template for PCR amplification. (Amaresh C, et al. 2018)
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